Sustainable energy generation is crucial to meet the energy demands in 21st century while keeping the implications of future challenges at its core philosophy. A geothermal power generation plant is one of such avenues that meets the associated challenges by utilizing the thermal energy stored in the earth to generate clean power. The energy acquired in the process, termed as the geothermal energy, has the highest baseload due to its independence of seasonal factors (e.g., sunlight, winds, cloudiness). Despite such huge potential, different factors such as limited access to thermal resources, high capital costs, and operational risks during drilling the geothermal wells have constrained its widespread development. This article describes the challenges and technological needs associated with the geothermal drilling. Furthermore, a review of recent ongoing efforts to overcome the problems associated with the drilling fluid properties and drilling tools operational limitations is presented. By studying the different components involved in the geothermal well construction, we can understand the challenges of this operation. Also, this article can provide insight into the needs and technological developments necessary to address some of the most common problems associated with geothermal drilling.